M’Learnin Student Centre


COURSE TITLE  Issues in Canadian Geography
 CURRICULUM POLICY The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 and 10: Canadian and World Studies (Revised 2018)
OTHER DOCUMENTS Growing Success (First Edition, 2010)


DEPARTMENT Social Science



This course examines interrelationships within and between Canada’s natural and human systems and how these systems interconnect with those in other parts of the world. Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live.


1.Geographic Inquiry and Skill Development

Throughout this course, students will:

A1.    Geographic Inquiry: use the geographic inquiry process and the concepts of geographic thinking when investigating issues relating to Canadian geography;

A2.    Developing Transferable Skills: apply in everyday contexts skills, including spatial technology skills, developed through the investigation of Canadian geography, and identify some careers in which a background in geography might be an asset.

2.Interactions in the Physical Environment


By the end of this course, students will:

B1.    The Physical Environment and Human Activities: analyse various interactions between physical processes, phenomena, and events and human activities in Canada (FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective)

B2.    Interrelationships between Physical Systems, Processes, and Events: analyse characteristics of various physical processes, phenomena, and events affecting Canada and their interrelationship with global physical systems (FOCUS ON: Patterns and Trends; Interrelationships)

B3.    The Characteristics of Canada’s Natural Environment: describe various characteristics of the natural environment and the spatial distribution of physical features in Canada, and explain the role of physical processes, phenomena, and events in shaping them (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Patterns and Trends)

3.Managing Canada`s Resources and Industries


By the end of this course, students will:

C1.    The Sustainability of Resources: analyse impacts of resource policy, resource management, and consumer choices on resource sustainability in Canada (FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective)

C2.    The Development of Resources: analyse issues related to the distribution, availability, and development of natural resources in Canada from a geographic perspective (FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective)

C3.    Industries and Economic Development: assess the relative importance of different industrial sectors to the Canadian economy and Canada’s place in the global economy, and analyse factors that influence the location of industries in these sectors (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Patterns and Trends)

4.Changing Populations

By the end of this course, students will:

D1.    Population Issues: analyse selected national and global population issues and their implications for Canada (FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Patterns and Trends)

D2.    Immigration and Cultural Diversity: describe the diversity of Canada’s population, and assess some social, economic, political, and environmental implications of immigration and diversity for Canada (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Geographic Perspective)

D3.    Demographic Patterns and Trends: analyse patterns of population settlement and various demographic characteristics of the Canadian population (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Patterns and Trends)

5.Liveable Communities 

By the end of this course, students will:

E1.    The Sustainability of Human Systems: analyse issues relating to the sustainability of human systems in Canada (FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective)

E2.    Impacts of Urban Growth: analyse impacts of urban growth in Canada (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Geographic Perspective)

E3.    Characteristics of Land Use in Canada: analyse characteristics of land use in various Canadian communities, and explain how some factors influence land-use patterns (FOCUS ON: Spatial Significance; Patterns and Trends)


Unit Descriptions Time and Sequence
Unit# 1


Canadian Connections & Methods of Geographic Inquiry

This brief unit will review mapping skills, latitude and longitude, and other geographic methods needed for the study of geography.


15 hours
Unit# 2 Physical Geography

In their study of natural systems, students will use the concept of a region in their investigation of Canada’s Ecozones and the physical processes which shape them.


25 hours
Unit# 3 Human and Cultural Geography

In the investigation of human systems, students will be given opportunities to identify and analyze patterns of spatial organization, including land use, population distribution, migration in and out of Canada, selected Native land claim agreements and the transportation and communication systems.


30 hours
Unit# 4 Economic Geography

The unit begins with a look at the types of industry and then moves to an examination of the fishing, agriculture and energy industries as an example of the specific natural resource industries.


25 hours
Unit# 5 Canada’s Global Geography

This unit focuses on the environmental, economic, cultural and systematic linkages, which exist between Canada and the world around us. Special attention will be paid to the unique connections that Canada shares with the United States.


15 hours
Final Assessment3 hours final exam culminating activity, worth 30% of the final grade, meant as a summative evaluation of all strands.


TOTAL 110 hours